Geopolitics of Central Asia: Between the Russian Bear and the Chinese Dragon

  The state and prospects of geopolitical cooperation between Russia and Central Asia will be discussed from the point of view of Greater Central Asia. The Central Asian project can be described as a broad strategic matrix that the United States uses for proper managing the systematic, political, and economic situation in Central Asia, the Caspian region, and Afghanistan.

  The Central Asian region is another active participant in world politics. The political position of Central Asia between the West and the East has a special transit potential and will continue growing. But the main thing is the presence of natural resources in the region, and not only oil and gas (but also more than a third of the world's uranium reserves are mined here, as well as gold, copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, aluminum, etc.), which makes it incredibly attractive for the great powers of the world.

  Russia, together with other developed world powers, defended its geopolitical interests in Central Asia since the 17th century, and it was the 21st century that created a new geopolitical landscape [11].

  In the 19th century, Afghanistan served as a strategic buffer state between the Russian Empire and the British Empire. In 1917, Afghanistan's relations with Moscow became warmer. Soviet Russia was the first country to establish diplomatic relations with Afghanistan in 1919, after the Third Anglo-Afghan War. The 1921 and 1926 treaties provided ample opportunities for solving the problems of both countries.

  When Emir Khabibullah came to power in 1929, relations (ties) between the two countries has practically been broken. The emir's support for the Basmachi movement angered the USSR. In September 1929, Nadir Shah was proclaimed the ruler of Afghanistan. The USSR did not try to influence events in the neighboring country, and Afghanistan's neutrality in World War II was satisfactory.

  Beginning from 1954, when his relative (uncle's son), General M. Dovud, became the prime minister, he embarked on reforms based on the principle of "economic orientation". The strengthening of ties between Afghanistan and the USSR became evident.

  During the implementation of the first five-year plan (1956-1961) and the second (1962-1967), enterprises and economic infrastructure facilities, which form the basis of the country's economy, were built in Afghanistan. Have emerged Industries such as auto repair, mining, chemicals, cement manufacturing, and residential construction.

  By 1978, 73 objects of the national economy have been built and 63 objects have been planned. Hydroelectric and thermal power plants built with the support of the USSR generated about 60 percent of the country's electricity. With the help of Soviet specialists, gas production wells and geological exploration were carried out, as well as agricultural enterprises were built in Jalalabad, a polytechnic Institute in Kabul, and a mechanical repair plant in Jangalag.

  National economy specialists were trained by Soviet teachers both in the USSR and directly in Afghanistan. Military ties played a big role. In search of a model for military development, Afghanistan turned to the United States in the 1950s, but was refused. The leadership of the USSR agreed to a meeting, and the military specialists of the USSR drew up a program for the renovation of the tsarist armed forces. Since 1960, Afghan officers have been trained in the USSR.

  The construction of semicircular roads along the Soviet border in the Kushka region through Kandahar and Kabul and north of the Salang Pass, where an important tunnel was built on the road to Mazar-i-Sharif to the Soviet border, contributed to the development of Afghanistan. The road contributed to the economic and political decentralization of the country.

  International organizations, in particular the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, provided assistance to Afghanistan. Funds for the construction of facilities (project financing) were provided by Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran - $ 10 million each, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, China, Great Britain and others. The financial support by the most powerful states (powers) of the world – USSR was 1100, and 500 million dollars – by the United States [9, p. 4-5].

  Regarding geopolitical situation, the absence of anti-Soviet foreign military facilities on Afghan soil was alarming and restless for the tranquility of the border situation, and the financial contribution of the USSR to the restoration (reconstruction) of Afghanistan was insignificant.

  In the early 70s. Solzhenitsyn called Central Asia "the belly of Russia." The phrase is borrowed from English political science. Churchill first called the Balkans "the belly of Europe" (the soft belly of the esophagus) in 1942. "Soft" because it made it easier for the Allies to destroy Hitler. [16]. The definition of the potential leader of the Russian nationalists is very vague. But there is nowhere to go "the word is not a sparrow, it will fly out, you will not catch it."

  The reforms in the Islamic world of the 1970s disrupted the system of socio-political relations between two countries and led to the growth of Islamic fundamentalism. The rejection of secular reform was the cause of the Islamic revolution in Iran.

  But let's get back to Afghanistan again. In the early 1970s, the monarchy became more tolerant of the middle class, bourgeoisie, merchants and entrepreneurs. He was considered incapable of change. As a result, on July 17, 1973, the Shah was overthrown.

   The king's uncle, General M. Dovud was at the head of the coup (behind the coup). The officers - members of the People's Democratic Party were also took part at the coup. Afghanistan was proclaimed a Republic, and M. Dovud was declared president. It soon became clear that the king, who, according to the convictions of the reformers, impeded reforms, (in fact) was a factor contributing to the strengthening of the reformed society.

  Already in June 1975, Islamists - supporters of G. Hekmatyar with the help of the Pakistani authorities in Parwan (Panjshir since 2004) and a number of other provinces raised an uprising (raised a rebellion/ revolted).

  President M. Dovud, nicknamed the "Red Prince" by the Islamists, tried to maintain order during the reforms. After the next instigating to a rebellion, he removed the left (opposition) from his advisers until 1976. In foreign policy, Dovud took the same steps: weakened Afghanistan's relations with the USSR and expanded and strengthened ties with the United States, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and other countries.

  Therefore, preparations for a magnificent celebration began in Saudi Arabia as a result of this policy. Upon his return to Afghanistan, M. Dovud began to suppress the democratic movement and persecute leftist forces in the army.

In response, the military, members of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, overthrew M. Dovud. Since his coming to power in the USSR, more than 3000 Afghan officers have been trained [9, p.7-8].

With the coming of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan to power in April 1978, which was ideologically close to the Soviet Union, cooperation (relations, ties) between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan strengthened and expanded. Already on December 5, 1978, the Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighborly Cooperation between the USSR and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was signed in Moscow [10].

Subsequent events led to a struggle in the ranks, and then the defeat of the PDPA, and the escalation of the civil war. As a result, at the end of December 1979, a limited contingent of Soviet troops entered Afghanistan. The events took place in Afghanistan from December 25, 1979 to February 15, 1989. The entry of the USSR into Afghanistan raised worldwide discontent (created a worldwide movement). The Sovietization of Afghanistan was a threat to China. The hypothetical "breakthrough" of the USSR through the Persian Gulf was preferable (gave an advantage) in relations with China. However, China has supported the Afghan opposition. Pakistan, which had a disputed border with Afghanistan in the area of Pashtun tribes, did not take advantage of its neighbor's internal instability.

For the Muslim world, the actions of the atheistic USSR were aggression against a Muslim country located on the shores of the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia is rich in oil and has been associated with the holiness of Islam. The "Marxist regime" took root in South Yemen. In Abyssinia, the "communists" came to power. A similar situation was in Riyadh and other Muslim capitals. As a result, financial and military assistance to the Mujahideen began.

After the withdrawal of Soviet troops, everyone expected the fall of the Kabul regime. However, in the second half of the 1980s, the anti-government forces of Afghanistan, exhausted (weary) by the war, were able to successfully fight.

The collapse of the Soviet Union changed the situation in Central Asia. The former Soviet republics, faced with the fact of its collapse, became part of the CIS. However, the Russian leadership, represented by B. Yeltsin, also abandoned the following constituent parts of a federal state: (the presence of a) single monetary unit - the CIS ruble, and (the presence of) the ministries of foreign affairs and defense.

On January 1, 1992, was announced the end of military assistance to Afghanistan. For the first time during 70 years, Russia has turned back on its southern neighbor, and its government has jeopardized the geopolitical interests of its country and the Central Asian states that have joined the CIS.

In 1994, Pakistani intelligence services, funded by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, with the consent and support of the United States, formed the Taliban movement. In June 1996, the Taliban invaded Kabul.

Since the 1990s, the newly formed states have been cooperating, guided by the following principles:

- with the Muslim world within the framework of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (since 2011, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, i.e. OIC) and the Organization of Turkic States (OTS). Saudi Arabia uses the OIC to advance its interests, including in Central Asia. [4] The OTS was formed by the Turkish leadership after the collapse of the USSR. The goal is to include the Turkic-speaking countries that were part of the Soviet Union [5];

- with the United States, but American policy in Central Asia was characterized by uneven dynamics, which led to dramatic consequences. After the events of September 11, 2001, America's presence in the region has grown significantly. Cooperation with Washington allowed the Central Asian countries to complete the transformation of the region under the influence of the international system. However, Washington, "closed" to Iraq, has shown its willingness to invest in the economies of Central Asian countries [13, p. 74];

- with the Russian Federation through the CSTO. The organization arose on the basis of the Tashkent Collective Security Treaty, signed on May 15, 1992, and on May 14, 2002, a number of countries formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). By 2020, Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are considered to be real members of the CSTO. The participating States undertake to protect each other from a wide range of threats (to provide all possible assistance in matters) (including terrorism, drug trafficking, cybercrime, external aggression, etc.). According to the CSTO charter, an attack on one of the members of the organization is tantamount to an attack on all members of the organization. An ongoing dialogue between the security forces of the participating countries has begun to counter threats. There are a number of collective rapid reaction forces (CRRF) that are subordinate to each other. Particular attention in the structure of the CSTO is paid to Central Asia, and more precisely to Tajikistan and the Tajik-Afghan border security (and strengthening).

After the collapse of the Soviet Union since 2005, the Tajik-Afghan border has been guarded by the joint Russian-Tajik units. Russia's largest military base is located outside its borders in Tajikistan, with about 7,500 military personnel. According to the agreements between Russia and Tajikistan, the period of stay of the Russian military personnel has been extended until 2042. The main task of the armed forces in Tajikistan is to neutralize the threat (and thereby ensure security) from Afghanistan [3];

- The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is one of the most influential organizations. The SCO was formed in 2001 from the "Shanghai Five" - an organization uniting Russia, China and the Central Asian’s neighboring states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan).

The main goal of the Shanghai Five was to resolve territorial disputes between China and the countries of Central Asia. After Uzbekistan joined the Shanghai Five, it became the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Within the framework of the SCO, Russia and China coordinate their policies in Central Asia and, thanks to this cooperation, avoid conflicts of interest. The SCO conducts its activities in various areas, including security, fight against drugs, economic and cultural cooperation.

Each participating state has an interest in maintaining stability and economic prosperity in Central Asia. However, there are priority issues for each country. For example, China is interested in expanding its economic presence in Central Asia and in a joint fight against Uyghur separatists (preventing them from strengthening their power in Central Asia and conducting sabotage activities in Xinjiang). Uzbekistan does not want to join certain aforementioned international organizations, in part because it does not want to lose partial independence. According to Tashkent, the presence of Russia and China in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is a balance between the two centers. This was one of the main reasons for Uzbekistan's entry into the international community. In 2015, India and Pakistan joined the SCO as full members [7].

Washington has set itself the broad and purposeful task of creating an alternative to Russia's integration projects in the region, limiting China's role in Central Asia, and facilitating the creation of a South and Central Asia macro-region in which the United States can control Afghanistan, cooperate with Delhi and Islamabad, and maintain the importance and the prestige of their dominance.

This is evidenced by the fact that at the same time, the State Department's statement emphasizes the importance of protecting the sovereignty and independence of Central Asian countries, as well as their integration with South Asia and strengthening sovereignty as interconnected processes (“more choice” - “more opportunities and, therefore , more independence ").

The concept of writing a US-Central Asian policy could cause a negative reaction in Russia and China, but in fact Washington was not guided by any principles [13, p. 66].

As a result, the Americans opposed the CSTO and the SCO, which could cause serious damage to Central Asia. Unexpectedly, in February 2020, a peace agreement was signed in Qatar between the United States and the Taliban movement, providing for the withdrawal of foreign occupation troops [2, p. 65].

It should be noted that this is not an easy combination. The United States that left Washington can only hope for one NATO member - Turkey, which has strong ties with the peoples of the region. He can resolve the situation diplomatically and, if necessary, have a military presence. But Turkey has its own (personal) interest - closer proximity to Central Asia, which has always been part of the implementation of the Turkish project "Great Turan". In this game, Turkey, of course:

- understands the Central Asian states that do not want to lose their independence.

- will face rivalry from China, which seeks to consolidate the economy of Central Asia.

Most likely, China is currently playing a large (influential) role in Afghanistan, exerting a great influence on Pakistan. Pakistan, in turn, is influencing the Taliban, which is Pakistan's intelligence project. China hopes to move pieces on the chessboard in Central Asia in several ways.

Is there a place for Russia in this game?

Some analysts believe that the Kremlin is strengthening the formation of a confederation with Turkey. [6] However, it is aimed at the disintegration of the CIS, the Russian Federation and the creation of the "Great Turan", and casts doubt on the very existence of the independence of the Central Asian states.

Ultimately, the Russian Federation, which claims political, religious and economic hegemony in the post-Soviet space and in Central Asia, will be able to strengthen its allied status and remain the subject of a geopolitical game, guaranteeing the independence of the Greater Central Asian’s states.

What is so important to all of them? In this scenario, the Republic of India, a member of the SCO, which also does not have hegemony in the region, will become a natural ally for the Russian Federation.

It is no coincidence that we began this article with a deep history of Soviet-Afghan relations. Further policy, not surprisingly, may be a repetition of these methods. Methods that have not been vetoed even in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.





SRF Q2 results: Profit rises 21% to Rs 382 crore - The Economic Times

1). Publication of scientific results. In 2020, scientists and specialists of the Institute published more than 185 scientific articles and abstracts, more than 25 scientific articles were published in the prestigious foreign journals.

2). Publication of Books. Also this year, the staff of the Institute submitted 3 textbooks, 2 of which were written in the state language and 1 in Russian for publication:

- "Handbook of Physics", 159 p.

-  "Automated communications management system", 260 p.

- “Renewable energy sources in the Republic of Tajikistan. Investigation of the energy characteristics of photoelectric converters of solar energy ", 148 p.


3). Promotion and facilitation of science. This year, the Institute's staff participated in more than 20 television and radio programs aimed at popularizing and initiating the study of natural sciences, and more than 35 scientific and popular articles were published in the mass media.

4). International Conference. On October 9-10, 2020, on the initiative of the Institute, the VII International Conference "Problems of Modern Physics" was held in Dushanbe. More than 30 foreign scientists participated in the Conference and spoke (made their presentations) online. The conference was held in 5 directions:

- Theoretical physics, dynamical systems

- Condensing medium, nanotechnology and new materials

- Problems of renewable and unconventional energy sources

- Cosmic rays, core physics and technology

- Physics of the atmosphere, climate change and water problems

- Medical physics.

More than 100 speeches (presentations) were made during the conference, around 30 percent of which were made by foreign scientists. The representatives of the USA, Japan, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and other countries were participated in the conference.

5). Tajikistan and Uzbekistan’s International conference.

During the International Conference "The Contribution of the Leaders of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to Strengthening Friendship, Good Neighborliness, Trust and Opening New Pages in Strategic Partnership between Uzbeks and Tajiks", which took place on 14-15September, 2020 in Dushanbe, an agreement on scientific cooperation was signed between the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. This agreement provides the joint scientific research in priority and useful for the development of countries areas, including in the field of nuclear physics, theoretical physics, condensate physics, optics, quantum electronics, physical and technical energy issues, application of methods of physical research in medicine, methods of nuclear physics research, physics of cosmic rays and supernatural energies, physics of semiconductors, shape and structure of crystals, physics of ferroelectrics and dielectrics, spectroscopy and etc.

Information about the beginning (start) of abovementioned cooperation was also published in the Tajik language in the mass-media of the Republic of Uzbekistan:

-  Agreement on scientific cooperation was signed // Newspaper “Ovozi tojik” in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Date of publication 09/22/2020 (

6) Subject Olympiads (competitions). In order to involve young people in the study of physical and technical sciences, the Institute organized and held 2 Olympiads (competitions): one at the republican level (republican competition) and the other in the city level (city competition).

6.1. So, on 12March, 2020, the competition named the "Cup of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan" in the 2019-2020 academic year on physics sciences was held for students of higher educational institutions of the Republic of Tajikistan. 23 students, including 7 physics by specialty and 16 not physics by specialty participated on it. 15 people from higher professional educational institutions of Dushanbe, 3 people from Sughd universities and 5 people from Khatlon University were competing for the prizes and awards. Based on the results of answers of the participants (competitors) of the Olympiad, the commission came to the following decision:

In the section “by specialty” the places were separated as following: 1st place was given to Kholov Yu.B. - 1st year student of TSU; 2nd place Matrobiyon N.S. - 1st year student of RTSU. The 3rd place was given to students: Ilyasov Sh. - 5th year student of KSU named after N. Khusrav, Kholov K. - 5th year student of the Tajik State Pedagogical University named after S. Aini.

- In the section “not by specialty” the places were separated as following: 1st place was given to - Kurbonali J. - 5th year student of TCI; 2nd place - Turaev Yu. - 1st year student of the TTU named after. M. Osimi. 3rd place was given to the following students: Yu. Azimov - 1st year student of TSMU named after Abuali ibn Sino, I. Yusupov. - 1st year student of TTU named after M. Osimi.

6.2. The Olympiad (competition) in physics named the "Cup of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan" was held among students of lyceums, gymnasiums and secondary schools in Dushanbe on 12-13 November, 2020. This competition was dedicated to the announcement of "Twenty Years of Teaching and Development of Natural Sciences, Exact Sciences and Mathematics in Science and Education”. 39 students in total took part in the competition. Based on the results of answers of the participants of the Olympiad, the commission came to the following decision:

- Among the students of secondary schools: 1st place was awarded to - Tojiddinzoda H. - student of 11thgrade of school # 42; 2nd place - I. Khursheda - student of the 10th grade of school №66. The third place was given to the following students: Rustamzoda M. - a student of the 11thgrade of school # 29; Shoimov Sh. - student of the 10th grade of school No. 55.

- Among the students of lyceum and gymnasium: 1st place was awarded to - A. Yusupov - student of the 11th grade of the lyceum for gifted students; 2nd place - D. Kalandarov - student of the 10th grade of the Lyceum for gifted students. The third place was given to students: Dustov S. - a student of the 11th grade of the Lyceum of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov; Nurulloeva Sh. - student of the 10th grade of the Lyceum of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.


Cooperation with domestic and foreign scientific institutions. The Institute cooperates with a number of domestic and foreign scientific institutions, including:

- Joint Institute for Nuclear Research named after D. Skobeltsin (Dubna, Russian Federation),

- Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov;

          -  National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute";

-  Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (MIPhE);

-  Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Russia (PFUR, RUDN);

 -  International University "Dubna";

-  Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radio Engineering;

- Nazarbayev University (Astana, Kazakhstan);

-  Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov (Astana, Kazakhstan);

- Laboratory of atmospheric processes of the Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg;

- Laboratory of Aerosol Optics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics named after A.M. Obukhov RAS;

- Resource Center, Faculty of Geoecology, St. Petersburg State University;

- Institute of Physical and Technical Sciences and Materials Science of the National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic;

- LLP "Scientific and Technical Center of Housing and Communal Services of Kazakhstan";

- National Research University named after S.P. Korolev, Samara;

- Institute of the Troposphere named after Leibniz (Leipzig, Germany).


Within the framework of the Memorandum of Mutual Understandings and Agreement signed between the Physics- Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov and the Institute of the Troposphere named after Leibniz (Leipzig, Germany), a joint study continuing in the framework of the Central Asian DUST Experiment CADEX.

Let us recall that on the basis of this cooperation, the Institute received expensive equipment Lidar - one of the latest and unique for Central Asia technologies for studying the composition of the atmosphere, which is studied all over the world for the sixth time.

This technology makes it possible to study accurately the composition of the atmosphere up to an altitude of 44 km.

- Waseda University of Japan. Within the framework of the research carried out by the newly created structure of the Institute - the computing cluster, at present, in cooperation with the Waseda University of Japan, calculations are continuing in the direction of functional density theory.


- College of Atmospheric Sciences ( Lanzhou University of China ( A Memorandum of Mutual Understandings was signed with this college, and cooperation continues since 2018. (A Memorandum of Mutual Understandings was signed between the NAST with the abovementioned college, and cooperation continues since 2018). According to this document, cooperation is planned to be prolong until 2025. It is currently planned to open another state-of-the-art laboratory at the Institute through the grant from the aforementioned university. The laboratory that is aimed to study the dust will be installed at the Aywaj weather station.

- Key State Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences of the Northwest Institute of Environmental Ecology and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, located in Lanzhou, China. ( t20150505_146917.html).

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria). In cooperation with the international organization IAEA and with the support of the government and the Presidium of NAST, the Institute regularly sends interns to research Institutes around the world.

On the status of the Institute "Basic organization of the CIS member states in the field of training of scientific personnel in the field of physics and technology." On 12-13 February 2020, in Minsk, Belarus, a meeting of an expert group was organized in the Executive Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States on the project harmonization of basic Institutes of the CIS member states in the field of training for scientific personnel in the field of physics (Institute of Physics named after P.N. Lebedev RAS (FIAN)) and physics and techniques (Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov NAST). The following decision was made in the results of the meeting:

- The documents of the meeting should be sent to the CIS member states for internal coordination of draft regulations on the basic institutions of the CIS member states in the field of training for scientific personnel on physics and on the basic institutions of the CIS member states in the field of training for scientific personnel in the field of physical and technical sciences, including the Draft Resolution of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CIS.

In accordance with the established procedure, draft regulations on the basic institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training for scientific personnel in the field of physical sciences and on the basic institutions of the CIS countries in the field of training scientific personnel in the field of physical, physical and technical sciences, as well as a Draft Resolution of the Council of CIS Foreign Ministers (the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CIS) should be submitted to the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CIS for their further discussion.

In case if the Institute is granted (will receive) the status of the basic organization, it can lead the following things to a new level - training, retraining, advanced training for scientific personnel, exchange of information about experience, innovations, methodological support used in this area, solution of scientific and methodological problems, organizational, joint research, international sectoral and scientific-practical conferences, seminars, symposia and exhibitions.

Consideration of draft normative acts for adoption within the CIS frameworks, related to the sphere of the basic organization, preparation of appropriate conclusions and recommendations for the harmonization and the exchange of normative acts are also included in the functions and responsibilities of the basic organization.

Recalling that at the 6th meeting of the Council for the Cooperation in the Field of Fundamental Sciences of the CIS Member States on 12th October 2018, the proposal of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan on granting of the status of “Basic organization of the CIS member states in the field of training for scientific personnel in the field of physics and technology” to the Institute of the Physics and Techniques named after S.U. Umarov was accepted. In this regard, the working group proposed to NAST to prepare a draft Regulation on the basic organization. The draft Charter prepared jointly by NAST and the Institute along with the Resolution of the Council of CIS Foreign Ministers were finalized at a meeting of the Council Working Group (Minsk) on 15-16thApril 2019. The final materials were sent to the Council Members for approval. The consideration of the final materials (documents) of the Working Group, including the Resolution of the Council of CIS Foreign Ministers on granting/assigning the status of the basic organization to the Institute is foreseen (provided) at a meeting of the Council on 28th November, 2019.

9). Scientific expedition "Pamir 2020". The Pamir Summer Expedition-2020 was organized with the joint participation of the staff of the International Center for Nuclear Physical Research (ICNAPI) (K. Azizshoev, S. Odinaev, M. Shanbiev, Sh.Yu. Aminzhonov) and the Presidium of the Institute (F. Shokir, Kh. Rakhmonov) on the 10-25th July of current year.

It is known that an Agreement on the establishment and operation of the Pamir-Chakaltai International Research Center for the joint nuclear physics and high-energy astrophysical research (studies) of cosmic rays was signed between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Government of the Russian Federation in August 2008. So, a summer expedition with the participation of employees of the Institute has been held annually since 2015.

A group of young researchers of the Institute conducted the sixth study at Ak-Arhar station as a part of the Pamir - 2020 scientific expedition on 10-25th July of the current year. Young scientists, within the framework of this project and under the direct guidance of teachers, studied the following scientific issues:

- Terrain analysis related to gamma, beta and neutron radiation.

- Analysis of the activity of the volume of immunosuppressants-222 (radon), and radon-220 (mesh) in the air and inside of objects.

-  Background analysis with space tube.

- Selection of representative soil and plant samples for gamma spectrometric analysis.

The studies were carried out in the foothills of the Pamir, in Murgab, GBAO, at three scientific stations for the registration and study of cosmic rays:

-  main research site: base in the Ak-Arhar region, at an altitude of 4360 m, 1971-1975 years of construction;

- The base in the Chechekti region, at an altitude of 3860 m., 1944-1946 years of construction and foundation;

- Incomplete construction of the base in the Koluch-Kul area, at an altitude of 4270 m, 2012-2013 years of construction.

Thus, the issues that were posed to the members of the expedition have been fully studied, and the assigned tasks have been completed this year.

It should be noted that the study of radioactivity as the emission of certain nuclei and the radiation itself as ionizing radiation is a natural phenomenon, since a certain amount of it exists in all environments and even inside the human body. That is, ionizing radiation is a constant phenomenon, which is usually called the background radiation of the environment. Ionizing radiation and radioactive substances are effectively used in various fields –starting from the energy production to medical use (use in medicine), industry and economics. The importance of this problem lies in the fact that the risk of radioactivity (radiation) for employees, population and the environment must be assessed and controlled during the use and work in general. It was determined that the radiation background of the Ak-Arkhar site (area) is in the range of 0.06-0.13 μZ v / h that make it acceptable and does not cause harm as a whole, as well as does not have a harmful effect on the human body and the environment. The radiation map of the surveyed territories was completed on the basis of a study of more than 40 points located at a distance of 4360-5000 m above sea level in July 2020.

10). On the application of scientific results and inventions in practice.

It is necessary to mention the development and application of a new generation of cryosurgical instruments by the Institute's scientists with an anti-adhesive coating, providing a continuous flow of a large amount of nitrogen during the surgery, in practice, invented in cooperation with the Institute of Gastroenterology.

The introduction of surgical equipment, invented in 2020, 4 documents for which were also ratified (received) in current year, will be carried out in the following medical institutions of the Republic of Tajikistan:

- Department of Surgery of the Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract of the Institute of Gastroenterology of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Population of the Republic of Tajikistan - treatment of 23 patients;

- Surgical Department of the Khatlon Regional Clinical Hospital named after B. Vohidov, Bokhtar city - treatment of 6 patients;

- Department of Surgery of the Kulyab Regional Hospital named after A. Khaknazarov, Kulyab city - 8 patients;

- Department of Abdominal Tuberculosis Surgery, State Institution "National Center for Tuberculosis and Thoracic Surgery" - treatment of 2 patients.

More than 243 patients underwent surgery in the Institute of Gastroenterology since 2016. It should be noted that the treatment of liver diseases in the country was not possible before the invention of the mentioned equipment.

11). The Institute's contribution to the prevention of COVID-19. In 2020 in connection with the disease (I.e. due to the outbreak of a pandemic), scientists and specialists from the Institute contributed for (to) the Prevention of Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19). Currently the achievements include the following points:

- The Institute developed and installed a power supply system for all NAST NAOCL reactors of various capacities in the process of developing a reactor for the production of NAOCL antiviral material (hypochlorite);

- Engineering department of the NAST, which includes several laboratories of the Institute, built a respiratory machine and handed it over to the “emergency department” for testing.

- Two scientific Institutes have been working as members of 2 Inter-Agency Councils (under the NAST and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan) to identify the causes and consequences of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and to develop recommendations since May 2020.

- The computer model of COVID-19 was developed and designed by the specialists of the Institute of Computer Modeling and submitted to the Presidium of the NAST.

12). Activity of the Dissertation Council of the Institute. Dissertation Council 6D.VAK-031 (DS) in scientific areas 6D060400 - Physics and 6D071700 - Heat power engineering for the defense of dissertations for obtaining the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Traditional Doctor of Philosophy in the specialty at the Institute of the Physics and Techniques named after S.U. Umarov of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan was established (ratified) by order of the Chairman of the Higher Attestation Commission under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan (HAT, VAK) under number 72 dated 06.12.2017.

According to the Order of the Chairman of the Higher Attestation Commission dated 03.02.2020 under number 38, the Dissertation Council allows admission for consideration and defense of dissertations in the following specialties:

6D060400 - Physics:

- 04.01.07 - Physics of condensation conditions;

.0 01.04.15 - Physics and technology of nanostructures, atomic and molecular physics;

- 04.01.16 - Nuclear physics, fundamental particles.

6D071700 - Thermal power:

- 05.14.08 - Power plants based on renewable energy sources.

6D061200 - Meteorology

25.00.30 - Meteorology, climatology, agrometeorology.

The chairman of the Dissertation Council 6D.VAK-031 is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician Muminov Kh.Kh.

6 meetings of the Dissertation Council were held in the current year, including 2 defenses of dissertations (for obtaining the degree of candidate of sciences) and 2 dissertations were admitted to the defense.

13). Defense of dissertations based on dissertation research by the staff of the Institute. The following employees of the Institute defended their dissertations in 2020:

- Idibegzoda Halimahon Idibeg, specialty – 04.01.07 - Physics of condensing states;

- Odinaev Fatkhullo Rakhmatovich, specialty 02.00.04 - Physical chemistry

- Davlatmamadova Sabik Shomamadovna, specialty 04.01.07 - Physics of condensing states.

14). Awards and prizes. 5 graduates of the Institute were awarded by the State Prizes "Medali Hizmati Shoista" ("Medal for Outstanding Service") and "Nishoni alochii maorif va ilmi Tojikiston" ((“Badge of distinction in the field of education and science of Tajikistan” or "Excellence in Education and Science of Tajikistan") in current year.

Two of the following teachers of the Institute co-authored with F. Rakhimi, S.M. Akhmadzoda, Kh.Kh. Muminov, S.Sh. Akhmedov, F.R. Odinaev were awarded by the State Prizes of the Republic of Tajikistan named after Abu Ali ibn Sino in the field of science and technology for the cycle of works "Development of a new generation of cryosurgical devices (machines) and their use in surgery of diseases of the abdominal cavity" on the 4 of September, 2020:

 - Kh.Kh. Muminov - Head of the Department of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology.

- F.R. Odinaev - Head of the Laboratory of Physics of Transcendental and Transient Processes.

On 4 of September, 2020, 2 employees of the Institute were awarded by the State Prize (“Medali of the Hizmati Shoist”) “Medal for Outstanding Service”/ They are:

- S.F. Abdulloev - Head of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics.

-  F.R. Odinaev - Head of the Laboratory of Physics of Transcendental and Transient Processes.

14.04.2020. The following 2 employees of the Institute were awarded by the State Prizes “Nishoni alochii maorif wa ilmi Tojikiston” (“Badge of distinction in the field of education and science of Tajikistan” or "Excellence in Education and Science of Tajikistan"):

- Yunusova S.V. - Leading Researcher of the Department of Theoretical Physics.

15). Kea moments and activities of the Institute in 2020.


Training of scientific personnel

Training of scientific personnel

At the same time, were opened master's and doctoral courses, where graduate students improve their knowledge and skills. Currently the Agency has one PhD student (doctorate) and two traditional graduate students which are involved into in- date trainings (the Agency's long-term plan is in the Appendix 5). During this period, one Agency’s candidate (Mirsaidov I.) defended his doctoral thesis and 7 employees (Rakhmatov N., Nazarov F.A., Khamidov F.A., Yakubov Z.T., Khakerov I.Z., Barotov A M. and Khodzhiev S.) defended their candidate theses, two more employees (Azizov O., Misratov J.) presented theses for defense. Seven young professionals were hired at the Agency.
Prospects for the development of science will be developed on the basis of the goals of the National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period up to 2030 and will focus on the rapid industrialization of the country, which is the fourth strategic goal of the country. In this regard, the Agency focused the Prospects for the development of its scientific activities on several areas. One of them is the preparation/developing the pool of highly qualified personnel in the field of radioecology, technology and development of radioactive substances, including uranium and radiation and nuclear safety.
For its implementation, a Regional Training Center was built and put into operation within the Agency, where specialists in the field of industry and medicine, science and education, and law enforcement agencies annually pass special training courses.
Last week, with the kind advice/recommendation and support of President of NAST, Academician Farhod Rahimi, were published valuable books that explore various aspects of our culture and Tajik civilization in various concepts.
The first book of the American Scientist Brad Gooch, entitled "The Secret of Rumi", translated by the Professor Parvona Jamshed, and according to a non-Tajik researcher, considered Vakhsh as the birthplace of Mavlono. This work, reflects the relationship of Mavlono's with Shamsi Tabrezi in a popular form that is currently exciting. The disappearance of Shams caused depression of Mavlono, therefore, Brad Gooch wrote: "Mavlono recovered from insanity, or maybe insanity was just an explanation that the people closest to him found to dispel grief after Shams left (disappearance)."
This occasion could lead to the creation of a gazelle, which includes the following verse:

Who yearns for demons and people.
The second book was written by NAST Corresponding Member, founder of systemic anthropology in the region Mahmadali Muzaffari and was published under the title "Systemic Anthropology". The author discussing and explaining the philosophy of anthropology, at the same time, presenting the ideas of the founder of Western anthropology, Max Scheler, and speaks following about the knowledge of Avestan anthropology: “According to Zarathustra, the fate of every person is in his hands, and there is nothing remain in the end but a set of thoughts, words and good deeds. Only the joint result of this trilogy can change the course of human destiny.”
Now, Western postmodernism has created a crisis of cultures, and as Oswald Spengler emphasizes, at a time when cultures cease to exist, the transition to civilization takes place. Arnold Toynbee opposes this idea, arguing that cultures are separate from civilizations. In this situation, the publication of these books is useful for reading by the citizens of our country and can answer many questions of our compatriots. This is due to the fact that modern sciences, such as philosophy of knowledge, philosophy of anthropology, philosophy of education and the similar sciences, are not yet included in the higher education system, while these sciences have emerged and spread in Europe since the second half of the last century.

Key points activities of the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan for 2020 year




   Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan (hereinafter referred to as the Institute) was created (opened) in 1964 with the aim of the comprehensive development of physical and technical research in the country, solving fundamental scientific and practical problems, developing and implementing new technologies, training of scientific personnel in the field of physical, mathematical and engineering sciences.

   Since its foundation, the Institute has specialized in nuclear physics research methods, cosmic rays and high-energy physics, semiconductor physics, low-temperature condensation physics, spectroscopy, nonlinear coherent optics (quantum electronics), physical acoustics, physical processes in the atmosphere, computer modeling of physical processes and innovative materials, renewable energy, crystal structure study, etc.

In 2020, research work in the laboratories of the Institute was carried out in the following areas:

Nanotechnological processing of cellular structures based on InP and InGaPAs semiconductors and investigation of the radiation level.

Air pollution: optical thickness of atmospheric aerosol in ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra; steam parameters of Angstrem water.

Development of materials, structures and systems for the integrated use of renewable energy sources.

Features of the transfer, deposition and accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the environment of the highlands of Tajikistan.

Study of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the spectroscopic characteristics\features of medicinal plants.

In addition to scientific research, the Institute is preparing scientific specialists in doctorate-level studies (PhD) in the direction 6D060400, consisting of 23 specialties in the field of physics, as well as organizing the work on training of masters in the following specialties:

Solid State Physics;


Theoretical physics.

Theoretical and practical activities are also included in the curriculum of the Small Academy of Sciences, where students of secondary schools are devoted members of the "Physics" section of the Small Academy of Sciences.

All directions of the Institute's activities can be explained in detail, but in order to get a general idea of the process of activities, we will just summarize the results and achievements of the Institute.

Institute activities in 2020:




Publishing activities/Publications




    In 2015-2020, the Agency's staff, together with scientists from the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, published more than 177 scientific and popular scientific articles in national and international journals (Appendix 6).

   Including publication of following monographs by Mirsaidov U.M., Badalov B. and Dymova T.N. "Thermal stability and thermodynamic characteristics of aluminum hydride", Mirsaidov U.M., D.М. Mirzoev, Kh. E. Boboev "Comprehensive processing of mudstones of kaolin clays of Tajikistan", Monograph. Dushanbe: Donish, 2016 .-- 92 p., Mirsaidov U.M., Kurbanov A.S., Mamadov E.D. “Acid decomposition of borosilicate ores”, Dushanbe: Donish. - 100 p., 2015., MirsaidovU.M., "The Issues of Radiation Safety in Tajikistan", Monograph. Dushanbe: Donish, 2019.-112 p., Mirsaidov U.M., Nazarov Kh.M., Khodzhiev S.K., Rakhmatov N.N., “Features of the extraction of uranium concentrates from ore and uranium-containing waters of Tajikistan”, Monograph, Dushanbe: Knowledge, 2019 .-- 250 p.

     Such a materials as “Collection of laws” and “Compilation of regulatory legal acts in the field of nuclear and radiation safety” were also published successfully.