joomla

Key points activities of the Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan for 2020 year

 

 

 

   Physical-Technical Institute named after S.U. Umarov of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan (hereinafter referred to as the Institute) was created (opened) in 1964 with the aim of the comprehensive development of physical and technical research in the country, solving fundamental scientific and practical problems, developing and implementing new technologies, training of scientific personnel in the field of physical, mathematical and engineering sciences.

   Since its foundation, the Institute has specialized in nuclear physics research methods, cosmic rays and high-energy physics, semiconductor physics, low-temperature condensation physics, spectroscopy, nonlinear coherent optics (quantum electronics), physical acoustics, physical processes in the atmosphere, computer modeling of physical processes and innovative materials, renewable energy, crystal structure study, etc.

In 2020, research work in the laboratories of the Institute was carried out in the following areas:

Nanotechnological processing of cellular structures based on InP and InGaPAs semiconductors and investigation of the radiation level.

Air pollution: optical thickness of atmospheric aerosol in ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra; steam parameters of Angstrem water.

Development of materials, structures and systems for the integrated use of renewable energy sources.

Features of the transfer, deposition and accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the environment of the highlands of Tajikistan.

Study of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the spectroscopic characteristics\features of medicinal plants.

In addition to scientific research, the Institute is preparing scientific specialists in doctorate-level studies (PhD) in the direction 6D060400, consisting of 23 specialties in the field of physics, as well as organizing the work on training of masters in the following specialties:

Solid State Physics;

Microelectronics;

Theoretical physics.

Theoretical and practical activities are also included in the curriculum of the Small Academy of Sciences, where students of secondary schools are devoted members of the "Physics" section of the Small Academy of Sciences.

All directions of the Institute's activities can be explained in detail, but in order to get a general idea of the process of activities, we will just summarize the results and achievements of the Institute.

Institute activities in 2020:

 

 

 

Training of scientific personnel

Training of scientific personnel

At the same time, were opened master's and doctoral courses, where graduate students improve their knowledge and skills. Currently the Agency has one PhD student (doctorate) and two traditional graduate students which are involved into in- date trainings (the Agency's long-term plan is in the Appendix 5). During this period, one Agency’s candidate (Mirsaidov I.) defended his doctoral thesis and 7 employees (Rakhmatov N., Nazarov F.A., Khamidov F.A., Yakubov Z.T., Khakerov I.Z., Barotov A M. and Khodzhiev S.) defended their candidate theses, two more employees (Azizov O., Misratov J.) presented theses for defense. Seven young professionals were hired at the Agency.
Prospects for the development of science will be developed on the basis of the goals of the National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period up to 2030 and will focus on the rapid industrialization of the country, which is the fourth strategic goal of the country. In this regard, the Agency focused the Prospects for the development of its scientific activities on several areas. One of them is the preparation/developing the pool of highly qualified personnel in the field of radioecology, technology and development of radioactive substances, including uranium and radiation and nuclear safety.
For its implementation, a Regional Training Center was built and put into operation within the Agency, where specialists in the field of industry and medicine, science and education, and law enforcement agencies annually pass special training courses.
Last week, with the kind advice/recommendation and support of President of NAST, Academician Farhod Rahimi, were published valuable books that explore various aspects of our culture and Tajik civilization in various concepts.
The first book of the American Scientist Brad Gooch, entitled "The Secret of Rumi", translated by the Professor Parvona Jamshed, and according to a non-Tajik researcher, considered Vakhsh as the birthplace of Mavlono. This work, reflects the relationship of Mavlono's with Shamsi Tabrezi in a popular form that is currently exciting. The disappearance of Shams caused depression of Mavlono, therefore, Brad Gooch wrote: "Mavlono recovered from insanity, or maybe insanity was just an explanation that the people closest to him found to dispel grief after Shams left (disappearance)."
This occasion could lead to the creation of a gazelle, which includes the following verse:

Who yearns for demons and people.
The second book was written by NAST Corresponding Member, founder of systemic anthropology in the region Mahmadali Muzaffari and was published under the title "Systemic Anthropology". The author discussing and explaining the philosophy of anthropology, at the same time, presenting the ideas of the founder of Western anthropology, Max Scheler, and speaks following about the knowledge of Avestan anthropology: “According to Zarathustra, the fate of every person is in his hands, and there is nothing remain in the end but a set of thoughts, words and good deeds. Only the joint result of this trilogy can change the course of human destiny.”
Now, Western postmodernism has created a crisis of cultures, and as Oswald Spengler emphasizes, at a time when cultures cease to exist, the transition to civilization takes place. Arnold Toynbee opposes this idea, arguing that cultures are separate from civilizations. In this situation, the publication of these books is useful for reading by the citizens of our country and can answer many questions of our compatriots. This is due to the fact that modern sciences, such as philosophy of knowledge, philosophy of anthropology, philosophy of education and the similar sciences, are not yet included in the higher education system, while these sciences have emerged and spread in Europe since the second half of the last century.

Intellectual property

 

 

 

 

    In 2015-2020, researchers of the Agency, together with scientists from the Institute of Chemistry named after V.I. Nikitina NAST presented their research paper for obtaining small patents. Patents were granted by the positive decision to the patents’ applications to following researchers:

1. Mirsaidov U.M., Gafurov B., Badalov A., Nasrulloev H., Khakyerov I. Method of hydrocarbons’ desoltification of rare earth metals. No. TJ 741. 11.24.2015.

2. Mirsaidov U. M., Akhmedov M. Z., Nazarov H. M., Rakhmatov N. N., Khakimov N. N., Mirsaidov I. U. Methods of extracting uranium from wells and sinks. Small patent No. TJ 743. 12.16.2015.

3. Mirsaidov U.M., Barotov A.M., Akhmedov M.Z., Yatimov P.M., Yakubov Z.T. How to make dichloride from danburite. Small patent No. TJ 749. 17.02.2016.

4. F.Khamidov, A. Badalov, U.M. Mirsaidov, M.Z. Akhmedov., Mirsaidov I.U. The method of decomposition of uranium compounds. Small patent. No. TJ 801. 28.10.2016

5. Nazarov Kh.M., Irmatov K.A., Mirsaidov I.U., Rakhmatov N.N., Akhmedov M.Z. Wastewater treatment method. Small Patent No. TJ 835.03.05. 2017 Nov.

6. Kurbanov A.S., Barotov A.M., Nazarov F.A., Davlatov D.O., Mirsaidov U.M. Method for processing borosilicate raw materials / Small patent No. TJ 848. - 02.10.2017.

7. Mirsaidov U.M., Badalov A., Akramov M.Yu. Azizov O.A. / Method of obtaining aluminum hydride by mechanochemical method. Small patent No. TJ 896 12.04.2018

8. Mirsaidov U.M., Nazarov Kh.M., Khodzhiyon S.K., Khojiyon M.K., Barotov B.B. Method for leaching of uranium ores. Small patent No. TJ 927. 13.10.2017.

9. Kurbanov AS, Barotov AM, Dzhuraev Yu. Kh., Nazarov Sh.B., Mirsaidov U. M. Method of obtaining glass with boron content. Small patent No. TJ 980. 21.11.2018

10. Boboerov M. D., Barotov B. B., Mirsaidov U., Khomidov F. A., Davlatnazarova M. D., Muminov S. V., Isoboev M. D. Methods of extracting uranium from mine waters. Small Patent No. TJ 1044. 05.06.2019

 

 

 

 

Publishing activities/Publications

 

 

 

    In 2015-2020, the Agency's staff, together with scientists from the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, published more than 177 scientific and popular scientific articles in national and international journals (Appendix 6).

   Including publication of following monographs by Mirsaidov U.M., Badalov B. and Dymova T.N. "Thermal stability and thermodynamic characteristics of aluminum hydride", Mirsaidov U.M., D.М. Mirzoev, Kh. E. Boboev "Comprehensive processing of mudstones of kaolin clays of Tajikistan", Monograph. Dushanbe: Donish, 2016 .-- 92 p., Mirsaidov U.M., Kurbanov A.S., Mamadov E.D. “Acid decomposition of borosilicate ores”, Dushanbe: Donish. - 100 p., 2015., MirsaidovU.M., "The Issues of Radiation Safety in Tajikistan", Monograph. Dushanbe: Donish, 2019.-112 p., Mirsaidov U.M., Nazarov Kh.M., Khodzhiev S.K., Rakhmatov N.N., “Features of the extraction of uranium concentrates from ore and uranium-containing waters of Tajikistan”, Monograph, Dushanbe: Knowledge, 2019 .-- 250 p.

     Such a materials as “Collection of laws” and “Compilation of regulatory legal acts in the field of nuclear and radiation safety” were also published successfully.

 

 

 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    The Agency for Nuclear and Radiation Safety was created as an integral part of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, therefore one of its main tasks is to conduct research work (R&D, Research and development work). Such work will be carried out in the research sector. The Agency conducts research work on scientific topics "Physicochemical foundations of uranium mining from uranium ores and mineral waters" (RKD 01115 TJ 00470) and "Physicochemical foundations of radiation ecology, development of regional radioecological maps and radiation monitoring of bioecology in Tajikistan" (RKD 01115 TJ 00471).

     The coordination of research work is carried out by the chief researcher - Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor Ulmas Mirsaidov. The scientific topics of the agency are headed by doctors of sciences and professors - Badalov Abulkhair, Salomov Abdujabor, Nazarov Kholmurod and Mirsaidov Ilkhom. Several scientists, including 9 candidates of sciences, are working on the implementation of scientific tasks at the Agency.

    The researches were done in the course of the study of characteristics of mineral water and technical waste from the uranium industry. It was found that the water content of the Taboshar tunnel is 10 mg per liter, the inflow of water is 40 m3 / h, and the water of the Kiik-Tal deposit contains 25-30 mg of uranium per liter, pH is 7.0-7.5 and the inflow of water is 4.0- 4.5 m3 / hour. These values show that uranium can be extracted from the mineral and industrial waters of Taboshar and Kiik-Tal. The kinetics of the sorption (absorption) process of uranium separation from uranium industrial waste has already been studied. The high sorption capacity of the apricot shell was revealed in comparison with other sorbents. The optimal absorption parameters have been determined. The basic technological scheme of uranium extraction from mine waters and industrial waste waters of the uranium industry, which consists of the stages of acidification, absorption, cooking, leaching, settling, refining and drying have been already presented. A basic technological scheme was proposed and the optimal conditions for the process of handling uranium wastes were determined based on the research results.

    In this case, the process of dehydration of hexahydrauranyl nitrate, which takes place in the temperature range of 310-420 K and consists of three stages, is carried out with water separation at each stage. The possibility of obtaining U3O8 from hexahydratiuranyl nitrate and trihydratiuranyl sulfate has been shown.

    The thermal decomposition of UO2 (NO3) 2, which takes place in the temperature range of 430-750 K, consists of two stages. The process of dehydration of uranium sulfate trihydrate takes place in two stages in the temperature range of 320-420 ° C, where one washing takes place at the first stage of the process, and the process takes place in two washes at the second stage. The process of thermal decomposition of uranium sulfate occurs in one stage at a temperature range of 480-710K.

    The chemical schemes of individual (separate) stages of the process of dehydration and destruction of uranium compounds  and the thermal characteristics of these stages have been determined by the methods of X-ray phase, spectroscopic and tensometric analysis.

    There has been obtained more detailed information on the thermal and thermodynamic characteristics of crystalline hydrates, nitrate and sulfate uranium.

    A study of the radioecological situation in the regions of Tajikistan, including radioactive waste dumps in the north of Tajikistan, was carried out, as well as radiological map was succesfully compiled.