Ustod Mirzo Mulloahmad, Doctor of Philology, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, currently works as a senior researcher on the issues (problems) of the Middle and Near East in the Institute for Asian and European Studies of the National Academy of Science of Tajikistan.

   In addition, he is a member of the publishing bureau of the International Association of the National Academy of Sciences, the editorial board of the journal "Rudaki" (Tehran), the journal Cultural institution ECO (Tehran), the journal "Payemnomai farhang" (Bulletin of culture), a member of the scientific council "Doiratul maorifi insonshinosi" (Tehran) for the defense of doctoral dissertations at the Institute of Language and Literature named after Rudaki NAST , and is also the chairman of the Tajikistan-Iran Friendship Association.

   From 1969 to the present, he has been working at the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, during this time he was in the positions of a senior laboratory assistant, junior and senior researcher, head of a department, head of a department and deputy director of the Institute for Science, then head of the department of science of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan and deputy chief Scientific Secretary of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan.

   From 1971 to 1974 he did his PhD  in the Institute of Oriental Studies and Written Heritage of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, and in 1975 he defended his dissertation on the topic "Ejodiyoti Farrukhi" ("Creativity of Farrukh"). From 1978 to 1980 he worked as a translator from Persian in Iran. In 1993 he defended his doctoral dissertation on the topic "Raviyai "Bozgasht" dar adabiyoti asrhoi XVIII - XIX Eron" "The process of the Return? into the literature of Iran in the 18th - 19th centuries”, and in 2008 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan.

   The field of scientific activity of Mirzo Mulloahmad is wide and covers the history of Tajik and Persian literature from ancient times to the present day, the literature of Iran and the East, the history of science and culture of the East, linguistics and literary and cultural ties of Tajikistan and the countries of the East.

   He is a well-known expert on the history of Tajik and Persian literature, and his scientific works were published in Moscow, Washington, Tehran, Baku, Mashhad, Berlin and others.

   For many years Mirzo Mulloahmad worked as the head of the department, deputy director of the Institute of Oriental Studies, head of the department and deputy chief scientific secretary of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, as well as being a member of the Accreditation Commission of the Republic of Tajikistan, he contributed to the organization and development of science in the country.

   M. Mulloahmad also made a valuable contribution to the training of scientific personnel. Under his leadership and the direct guide, 16 people defended their Ph.D. theses, 5 people defended their doctoral dissertations and 5 people are are in pre-defense.

    Mirzo Mulloahmad is one of the authors of the academic publication of the “History of Iranian Literature in the 19th - 20th centuries” (Moscow, Nauka, 1999, 535 p.). His books “Yodi Yori mehrubon” (Tehran, 2001, p. 845), “Khuboni porsiguy” (Tehran, 2003), “Andarzhoi Rudaki” (Tehran, 2008), “Sadoi Osiyo” (“Voice of Asia”) (2011) attracted the attention of foreign readers and introduced them to Tajik-Iranian works. His scientific works as "Jang va sulh dar "Shohnoma" (War and peace in Shahname) (2005), "Rudaki va sukhanvaroni ham ruzgoriyu" (2008, co-authored), “Biyo, to jahonro ba bad nasparem” (2010), “Piromuni Rudaki va rudakishinoson” (2014), “Sayire dar olami eronshinosi” (Journey into the world of Iranian studies) (2014) can also be attached to the authoritative Iranian publications.

    Among his published scientific works: "Farrukhii Sistoni" (1978), "Nishot va Midzhmar" (1983), "Lyricai Adibulmamoliki Amiri" (1985), "Furugii Bastomi va gazaliotio" (1967), "Koonyi Sherozi" (1992), "Sunnathoi poydori davroni purbori adabiyot" (2008) in the editions "Donish", "Donish", "Inson. Adabiyot. Fargang" ("Human. Literature. Culture") (1993), "Rudaki va rudakishinoson" (2012) in the publishing house "Adib", "Payomi ahloqii Firdavsi" (2003), "Dar olami eronshinosi" ("In the world of Iranian studies") (2005), “Biyo, to jahonro ba bad nasparem” (2011) at the publishing house “Devashtich”, “Buzurgdoshti insoni nek” (2011) at the publishing house “Maorif va fargang” (“Education and Culture”) and others.

   Mirzo Mulloahmad also made a significant contribution to the study and publication of works of ancestors, such as "Kobusnoma" of Kaykovus (1979, 2007), "Ruboiyoti Umari Khayyom" ("Rubai of Umar Khayyam") (1983), "Barguzidai Ash'ori Shahriyor" ("Selected Poems of Shakhriyor") (co-authored, 1984, 2006), "Hikoyathoi navisandagoni muosiri Eron" ("Stories of modern Iranian writers") (co-authored, 1986, 1988), "Ruznomai safari Iskandarkul" Abdurahmoni Mustajir (co-authored, 1989), “Gulbongi navjavon" Lohuti (1991), "Andarznomai Rudaki" (1992), "Gazaliyoti Furugii Bastomi" (1993), "Donishnomai" Maysari (1999), "Andarznomai Hakim Nosiri Khusrav" (2003), "Dahunoma" (2003), “Gulchini devoni Hofiz” (2006), “Andarzhoi Jaloliddini Rumi” (2007), “Ashyori muntahab” (“Selected Poems”) by Abuabdullohi Rudaki (2008), “Dar partavi khurshed” (2011), “Hikmatnomai Nosiri Khusrav" (2013) and others.

   Mirzo Mulloahmad is the author of more than 550 scientific and popular scientific works, including 30 monographs and collections of scientific articles, 40 different collections of works of ancient and modern Persian writers, which were successfully published through his efforts.

   Mirzo Mulloahmad took an active part in the organization of scientific conferences and forums, including assisting in the promotion of the International Symposium "Hazorai “Shohnoma”-i Firdavsi” (1994) as Executive Secretary, 675th anniversary of Kamoli Khujandi (1996), “Tajribai ta’rikhii sulhi Tojikiston” (“Historical experience of the world in Tajikistan”) (2001), “Fifth International Conference of Teachers of Tajik and Persian Languages and Literature” (2006), “Rudaki and World Culture” (2008). He presented scientific papers at more than 50 international conferences and symposia held in different cities around the world. In particular, at the UN Hall in New York (June 18, 2008), he delivered a scientific speech on the topic "Rudaki - shoiri buzurgi bashardust" ("Rudaki - the great poet of mankind"). Rudakishinosi (studies on Rudaki) is one of the main directions of Mirzo Mulloahmad's scientific activity, and, thereby “Donishnomai Rudaki” (Rudaki Encyclopedia) was published in three volumes under his leadership.

    The simplicity, humility, kindness, respect and hard work of Ustod Mirzo Mulloahmad is an example for everyone that guides young people on the path of hard work, happiness, victory, self-knowledge and self-awareness. Having worked with Ustod side by side for ten years, I have never heard the Teacher address anyone (i) unrespectedly.

Ту худ сӯзӣ вале созӣ ту моро,

Талошу ҳимматат поянда бодо.

Tu hud suzi vale sozi tu moro,

Taloshu himmatat poyanda bodo.

Subhiddin Ziyoyev

Head of the Middle East Department

Institute for Asian and Europe studies,  NAST

 The festival-competition “Behtarini hizbi” (“Best Party”), where took part (attended) different nationalities and which was dedicated to the 27th anniversary of the PDPT on the initiative of the PDPT Executive Committee in the Shohmansur region was held in the hall of the Academic Opera and Ballet Theater named after Sadriddin Aini, on December 8, 2021. The event was opened by the first deputy chairman of the People's Democratic Party Azizi Abdujabbor Abdukahkhor, who noting firstly that the aforementioned "our" party has a worthy leader, and that, secondly, thanks to the supreme leader, every member of the party can have power and must use it in the interests of nation in such a way that the party could influence on various platforms of our time, otherwise it will be difficult for the party to find a place in the minds of citizens.

    Then, according to the results of the competition the winners were awarded commemorative awards and prizes in eleven nominations such as "Best Committee", "Best Propagandist", "Best Representative (Delegate)", "Best Reporter (Journalist)" and other nominations of the Best.

    In the nomination "Best Committee" the first place was taken by the Primary Executive Committee "Hiradmandon" of PDPT of NAST .

    In the nomination "The best reporter (journalist)" the first place was taken by the press secretary of the National Academy of Science, Mashrab Abdullah. In other words, the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan took two places in the festival-competition, which testifies to the responsibility of three deputy chairmen of the People's Democratic Party "Hiradmandon" in the National Academy of Science of Tajikistan, the researcher and historian of the party Shirin Kurbanova ...








     The role of scientists, poets and writers, newspapers, magazines, books and articles, as well as research institutions and analytical centers (think tanks) is very important in solving these problems, their discoveries and achievements.

     Thus, foreign and domestic experts and political scientists, including researchers and experts of the Institute of Asian and European Studies Abdugani Mamadazimov, Shamsiddin Karimov, wrote books and research articles on the role and concept of geopolitics and emphasized its strategic importance.

    It should be noted that by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan dated October 28, 2016 No. 466, the Institute of Asian and European Studies was established in the structure of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan as a recently formed research institution, consisting of scientific centers dedicated to the study of politics, world economy, social thought, language, literature, history, religious, ideological and political disciplines, geography, including local history and regional studies, regional conflicts in countries around the world, including Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

     Thus, the above-mentioned Institute, under the leadership of its director, as well as scientific leaders and employees (researchers) in the field of geopolitics and its issues, planning its activities for lovers of science and education, which is a good basis for understanding of the political science of Tajikistan in the period of independence.

     It should be noted that in dictionaries, including Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, the concept of geopolitics is defined as follows: geopolitics or geographic politics comes from the Greek language, where “geo” means land, “politics” means state or public administration. According to the information, geopolitics is one of the main sections of political science, fundamental political science and the theory of international relations, and considers the state and specific historical forms of the influence of the territorial-spatial features of the state on global, regional and local processes. [1]

     Thus, it should be noted that nowadays, the countries of the world use geopolitics to explain (clarify) various issues and politic management. Let me pay here readers attention to the kea role of one of the world's research Institutes, which informs students and scientists in the management of geopolitical problems of the world and the region.

     The Center, registered as the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), which functions as an independent agency for the study of regional and global issues in the UK to the present day. The office presents its research work to students in accordance with laws, regulations, guidelines and best practices from academics and experts.

     For 60 years, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) has helped formulate and develop strategic issues for governments, business, media and experts around the world. The company generates revenue from database sales, publications, conference support, corporate sponsorship, research, consulting, as well as charitable donations and foundations. The aim of the Center is to reactivate and develop policies that will contribute to further ensuring and promoting peace and security around the world.

     The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) has offices in Washington, Bahrain, Berlin, London and Singapore, moreover, it studies and discusses current issues in Asia, Europe, the United States and the Middle East.

     It should be noted that strategic research, annual geopolitical assessments, objective and in-depth analysis of the Institute's specialists reflect the events, activists and forces that contribute to the development of international relations. All this will contribute specialists and researchers in the field as a benchmark and indispensable guide for the development of political science, business leadership, analysis, as well as will make it possible to reveal geopolitical and geoeconomic trends with great force. The Institute recently developed a special report on various problems of the world with the publication of the World Agenda for 2022 and its prospects, which discussed the problems and challenges of the world for 2020-2021.

    In this report, experts examine and analyze the development of all regions, as well as the existing problems and trends that still cover the whole world.

    It also examines the factors influencing strategic change for large states, with tested and comparable data on global and regional powers that provide rich and clear guidance for geopolitical events.

    Finally, it should be noted that the Institute studied the current issues of 2021, and in its annual report entitled “Strategic Survey 2021: The Annual Assessment of Geopolitics” [2], in a concrete form , a wide range of issues related to key Themes, including challenges and vaccine diplomacy, digital conflict, European strategies in the Asia-Pacific region, rising carbon emissions in space and environmental concerns, the prospects for Iran's nuclear program, and the future of political Islam that have become the subject of special attention (consideration) of the center and researchers.


Website of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and Research

Official website of the NAST Institute for Asia and Europe https: // /.../ 1319-nazari-ta-lilie-ba-na ...

Tajik National Encyclopedia: [approx. 25 t.] / Editor-in-chief N. Amirshokhi; 2011-2017, vol. 4). - ISBN 978-99947-33-77-4.

Strategic Review 2021: Annual Assessment of Geopolitics, October 2021, Volume: 2021, Publisher: IISS

Mirsaid Rakhmonov

Senior researcher at the Institute for Asian and Europe studies,  NAST




Scientific program оf International Scientific Conference: «The phenomenon of Homid Mahmudov in the formation аnd revival of the National theater of Tajikistan».

Scientific program

оf International Scientific Conference: «The phenomenon of Homid Mahmudov in the formation аnd revival of the National theater of Tajikistan».

November 7, 2020, at 09:30 p.m.

Venue: Conference Hall of the National

Museum of Tajikistan

Topics covered at the Conference:

Historical genesis and formation of professional national theaters in the Central Asian region (on the example of Tajik-Uzbek folk, professional national theaters).

The role of the Russian-European professional drama theater in the creation of Tajik-Uzbek professional national theaters (on the example of the work of Нomid Mahmudov). Obtained by Н.S. Mahmudov general educational knowledge in the Bukhara House of Education and the experience and professional skills of acting, performing arts in the State Drama Studio at the Uzbek Institute of Education named after. I.V. Stalin in Moscow, in the capital theaters of Vakhtangov, Meyerkhold, Moscow Art Theater (1923-1927).

The process of studying the methods and rules of performing arts and acting according to the Stanislavsky's System. Acquaintance with the artistic work of V.I. Nemirovich-Danchenko, A. Ya. Tairov, E. Vakhtangov, S. Meyerkhold, with the teaching and creative activities of R. Simonov, L. Sverdlin, O. Basov, B. Zakhava, B. Shukin,V. Filippov and other cultural figures of theatrical art.

Theater and the birth of national drama. The contribution of Н. Mahmudov, M. Saidov, S. Saidmurodov, F. Umarov


and other cultural figures in the formation of national drama and directing. The role and influence of Russian, European, Azerbaijani and Uzbek drama in the creation of Tajik drama (on the example of the creative activity of Нomid Mahmudov as the chief director and artistic director of the theater).

Contribution of the director of the National Theater of Tajikistan, Нomid Mahmudov, in matters related to the organization and training of highly qualified personnel for professional and folk theaters of the country.

The role of Нomid Mahmudov in the organization of the Orchestra of Folk Instruments of Tajikistan and theatrical and musical groups (based on Tajik radio, folk and professional theaters, folklore groups of the republic). Theater and the formation of Russian stenography.

Нomid Mahmudov and theatrical life of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Нomid Mahmudov – stage director of different genre performances and works of art on the stage of Tajik, Uzbek theaters.

Нomid Mahmudov and the methodology of teaching professional acting and performing arts of Tajik theater actors and actresses (on the example of G. Baqoeva, S. Tuyboeva, M. Qosimov, A. Burhonov, M. Ziyoyev, H. Shoy- mardonov, N. Giyosov, Z. Dustmatov and others).

Нomid Mahmudov and the formation of professional theaters in cities and regions of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (on the example of Bukhara, Samarqand, Qarshi, Khujand, etc.).

Нomid Mahmudov›s contribution to the formation and creation of a professional ensemble of Tajik actors and artists. Conceptual significance of the continuity of the creative heritage of Нomid Mahmudov in the conditions of the formation and revival of the modern National Theater of Tajikistan (on the example of professional musical, comedy, drama theaters, folk theaters of cities and regions of Tajikistan).


The official opening of the Republic exposition exhibition:

«Theatre – history and contemporaneity».

1. 09:30–09:35. Introductory speech by the Director of the National Museum of Tajikistan Abduvali Sharifzoda.

2. 09:35–09:40. Greetings from the Minister of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan Zulfiya Davlatzoda.

3. 09:40–10:00. Loоking over of the Republic exposition exhibition: «Theatre – history and contemporaneity».

The official opening International Scientific Conference: «The phenomenon of Homid Mahmudov in the formation and revival of Tajikistan’s National Theater».

1. 10:00–10:05. Opening of International Scientific Conference by Abduvali Sharifzoda.

2. 10:05–10:10. Introductory speech by the President of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, Academician Farhod Rahimi.

3. 10:10–10:15. Greetings from the Minister of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan Zulfiya Davlatzoda.

4. 10:15 –14:00. Scientific appearances. To adopt of Resolution. Moderators: Professors Askarali Rajabov, Sadullo Rahimov.

5. 12:00 –12:30. Coffee-brake.

6. Working languages: Tajik, Russian.


of International Scientific Conference:»The phenomenon of Homid Mahmudov in the formation and revival of the National theater of Tajikistan», dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the director, founder-reformer of the Tajik professional theater Homid Mahmudov (1900-1977)» and


Republic exposition exhibition: «Theatre – history and contemporaneity».

Dushanbe, National Museum of Tajikistan, 7 November 2020. Time: 09-30.

Farhod Rahimi (Tajikistan)

Sirojiddin Muhriddin (Tajikistan)

Zulfiya Davlatzoda (Tajikistan)

Аbdujabbor Rahmonzoda (Tajikistan)

Abduvali Sharifzoda (Tajikistan)

Маvsuma Мuini (Tajikistan)

Оbid Nаzаriyon (Tajikistan)

Мirzoolim Saidov (Tajikistan)

Qurbon Gulomzoda (Tajikistan)

Abdurahmon Мuhаммаd (Tajikistan)

Коrамаtullо Оliмоv (Tajikistan)

Nаsrullо Ubaydullо (Tajikistan)

Bаhrinisso Qоbilovа (Tajikistan)

Аskаrаli Rаjаbоv (Tajikistan)

Sаdullо Rаhimov (Tajikistan)

Мubinа Маhmudovа (Tajikistan)

Мuhammadrahim Kаriмzоdа (Tajikistan)

Маnzurа Hаsаnоvа (Tajikistan)

Lаrisа Dоdkhudoevа (Tajikistan)

Аsliddin Nizomov (Tajikistan)

Мuhаммаdullо Таbаrоv (Tajikistan)

Dаvlаtyer Sherаliеv (Tajikistan)

Fozil Аbdurаshitоv (Tajikistan)

Мirzо Мulloаhmаdov (Tajikistan)

Jаhоngir Nizомоv (Tajikistan)

Suhrob Мirzоеv (Tajikistan)

Igor Semenovich Lykin-Frоlоv (Russian Federation)

Irgash Shoismatov (Republic of Uzbekistan)

Dilfuza Rаhмаtullоеvа (Uzbekistan)


Аtо Аkhrоrоv (Uzbekistan)

Bаhоrа Khurrамоvа (Uzbekistan)

Bаkhtishod Ghаybullоеv (Uzbekistan)

Juма Quddus (Tajikistan)

Hаsаn Nurmatzoda (Tajikistan)

Аtо Khоjаеv (Tajikistan)

Zаfаrshо Ibrohimzoda (Tajikistan)

Firdavsi Abdulkhamid (Tajikistan)

Rаjаbаli Hisayмоv (Tajikistan)

Lutfullо Dаvlаtоv (Tajikistan)

Nоsir Hаsаn (Tajikistan)

Ibоdullо Маshrаb (Tajikistan)

Оrtiq Qоdir (Tajikistan)

Маrymi Isо (Tajikistan)

Dilbari Umar (Tajikistan)

Sаоdаti Аziz (Tajikistan)

Мuhаммаdjоn Shоdi (Tajikistan)

Shavkat Khаlilov (Tajikistan)

Nurмuhамаd Амirshоhi (Tajikistan)

Аziмjоn Aminov (Tajikistan)

Аkrам Hомidоv (Tajikistan)

Hоkiма Маhмuдоvа (Tajikistan)

Muhabbat Mansurhodjaeva (Tajikistan)

Bаhоdur Маhмudоv (Tajikistan)

Shavkat Маhмudоv (Tajikistan)

Rustam Маhмudоv (Tajikistan)

Shuhrat Маhмudоv (Tajikistan)

Тоlib Маhмudоv (Tajikistan)





Regional seminar on the requirements of the legislation of the Republic of Tajikistan on radiation safety in Istaravshan




    According to the joint plan of the Branch of the Agency for Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the National Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan in the Sughd Region (Branch of the Agency) with the Department of Health of the Sughd Region for 2021, a regional seminar on the requirements of the legislation of the Republic of Tajikistan on radiation safety was held on December 8 in the Istaravshan region.

    23 radiologists and laboratory assistants of X-ray equipment of medical institutions in the city of Istaravshan, as well as of Shakhristan, Devashtich, Zafarobod, Spitamen and J. Rasulov districts were attended in the seminar.

    The seminar was opened by the deputy chief physician of the Istaravshan Central Hospital - Marufi G. Husni. After that, the responsible officer of the Agency's Branch Adkhamov Akbar summarized the goals and objectives of the seminar, and continued with its presentation on the topic "Legislation of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of radiation safety."

    Then senior observers of the Agency Branch Boboev Begmurot and Rakhmatov Nusratullo made reports on the legal provisions and other regulatory legal acts of the Republic of Tajikistan, instructions and requirements of the Agency for Chemical, Biological, Radiation and Nuclear Safety of NAST on radiation safety, construction and operation of X-ray rooms to ensure radiation safety employees and the population, conditions and licensing requirements for certain types of activities, obtaining a license to use its radiation sources in the activities (operations) of medical institutions.

     Qualified specialists of medical institutions who made interesting reports and presentations on various topics: Murtazoev Anvar - medical physicist of the radiation therapy department of the "Sogd Oncological Center", Khaitov Khudoiberdi - family doctor of the Istaravshan Central Hospital, Azizov Farukh - radiologist, employee, responsible for radiation safety of the Central Hospital of Istaravshan and Narzulloev Shokhrukh - doctor of the occupational health department of the Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Istaravshan were also attended in the regional seminar.

     The main goal of the seminar was to increase the level of legal knowledge and culture of radiation safety of medical workers when carrying out X-ray (radiological) studies and methods of protection from radiation sources.

     Thus, the meeting with the medical staff in the Istaravshan region was fruitful and was memorable by all the participants of the meeting. During the seminar, the participants were provided with the necessary information on ensuring the radiation safety of the population and the environment through booklets prepared by the Agency's Branch.

    It should be noted that the plan for holding regional seminars in Khujand, Aini, Isfara and Istaravshan with the participation of radiologists from cities and districts of the Sughd region has been fully implemented for 2021.




Speech by the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Leader of the Nation, H.E. Emomali Rahmon Ceremony of the 5500th Anniversary of Sarazm Panjakent, 12 September 2020


Distinguished Compatriots,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

    With a great honorI would like to congratulate the glorious people of my country, including the people of the ancient city of Panjakent, which is not only the birthplace of the great Tajik-Persian poet – the humanity’s poet Abuabdullo Rudaki, but also a cradle of the ancient history of the Tajik people,on our holy national holiday - the 29th anniversary of our state independence and on the 5500th anniversary of Sarazm.

   Reverence for the sweet and poetic Tajik language, glorious history and culture, revival of good ancestral customs and traditions, promotion of ancestral heritage and protection of tangible and intangibleheritage of the Tajik people became the possibility for the glorious people of Tajikistan thanks to independence and freedom.

   In the contemporary times, especially in an environment, where the clash between civilizations and different cultural values is intensifying, it is possible to withstand the destructive effects of globalization only through an in-depth study of history and the promotion of rich historical and cultural heritage.

   I would like to emphasize that the love towards the beloved Motherland stems from the knowledge of the glorious history and instructive past of the nation.Indeed, the ancient history of the Tajik people and the precious tangible and intangible heritage of the past, including historical sites, is the greatest school of self-education for every member of society, especially teenagers and young people. The task of scientists, scholars, teachers and parents is to explain to the younger generation the importance of this great heritage and to encourage and guide them to study the ancient and glorious history of our people.

   Today, there are 3000 historical sites in our country, each of which attracts the attention of famous domestic and foreign scientists, tourists and guests.

  Ancient sites, including Kuldara, Khonaqoh, ancient Sarazm, Takhti Sangin, Ajinateppa, ancient Panjakent, Hulbuk, Bunjikat, Shahriston, Hisorak, Sanjarshoh, Karon, Yamchun and dozens of other places are annually explored through domestic and international ethnographic expeditions.

   Sarazm is one of such ancient sites. The meaning of this historical name is "where the land begins", which is a strong proof of the glorious and ancient history of the Tajik people. We have accomplished many activities to preserve this great historical heritage since independence.

   As early as in 2000, the Government issued its resolution declaring Sarazm site - a center for the formation of Tajik civilization, handicrafts and urban planning – as a historical and archeological reserve. I visited this place twice in 2003-2005, got acquainted with its situation and mandated the responsible persons to protect and study this unique place.

  Though the country had scarce financial resources in those days, we have allocated the necessary funds for the protection of this unique site. As a result, its five excavation areas were covered with a roof and the site was fanced during 2003-2008.

   In this process, historical and archeological materials and scientific evidence on the basis of research by domestic and foreign scientists were submitted to inscribe Sarazm into the UNESCO World Heritage List. Thus, this reputable organization inscribed Sarazm into the list of the most unique sites of universal cultureon July 31, 2010. Then, the Government adopted its relevant resolutionon on celebration of the 5500th anniversary of Sarazm, which is recognized by scientists and the international community as a center for the formation of Tajik agricultural, handicraft and urban planning.This document ensured a lot of landscaping and infrastructure development activities carried out in the city of Panjakent, and today we witness the city’s beautiful image, and its residents together with all the people of Tajikistan enjoying the celebration of their ancient homeland.

  Taking this opportunity, I would like to welcome all scientists and researchers and participants of the International Symposium "Sarazm - the beginning of the Tajik civilization of agriculture, handicrafts and urban planning" to beautiful Tajikistan and the ancient city of Panjakent.

  The Sarazm ancient city site was discovered in 1976 by the Tajik archeologist Abdullojon Ishakov. The results of scientific research on this historical site have been discussed at many international scientific conferences and fora in Tajikistan, Russia, the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and African countries.

   Sarazm is a unique site of the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages in Central Asia, which covers the period from the 4th to the 3rd millennia BCE and in some regions up to the 2nd millennium BCE. Historians believe that the formation of two pure models of economy and culture in Central Asia - a stable form of agriculture and field livestock - completed, and the most important historical process - the formation of production, including agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts – began during this period.

The first serious research on the study of the Eneolithic and Bronze Age sites in the territory of contemporary Tajikistan was conducted in the 50s of the last century in the territory of Qairoqqum and Beshkent valley. Later, Bronze Age artifacts were found in Istaravshan, the middle and lower reaches of the Vakhsh River and other parts of Tajikistan.

  During the independence, other Bronze Age artifacts were discovered in Kangurtut, Teguzak, Dahana, as well as in the middle and lower reaches of the Vakhsh River, the Hisor Valley, and more recently in Farkhor, which is currently being studied by specialists.

  The ancient town of Sarazm is geographically the northernmost cultural and agricultural settlement in Central Asia, and the civilization of Sarazm has lasted for almost 1500 years. Until 1980, the site was visited by famous archeologists Alexander Belenitsky, Vadim Mason, Boris Litvinsky, Rauf Munchaev, Boris Marshak, Ahmadali Askarov, Numon Nematov, Philippe Coll, Karl Lamberg-Karlovsky, Henri Paul Francfort and Bertil Leone.

  Since then, Sarazm has become one of the leading research centers by world-class specialists. Since 1984, foreign centers of science and archeology, first ad foremost, French scientists Henri Paul Francfort and Roland Bezenwall, and a year later American researchers Philippe Coll and Karl Lamberg-Karlovsky, as well as Russian researchers Natalia Vinogradova, Vadim Mason and Lyubov Kircho joined the studies.

  The comprehensive study of Sarazm site has been ongoing since 1984, during which Tajik scholars with their French, Russian, Chinese, Italian and American colleagues have studied the full history of the site, taking into account various aspects of life in its territory.

  The resolution to celebrate the 5500th anniversary of Sarazm gave a new impetus to a completely new period of research and study of this unique site. In this regard, archeological excavations and preparation of excavations for the celebration have been scaled up, and a large number of domestic and foreign archaeologists have been involved in its study.

   It is important to note that Sarazm is one of the oldest centers of agricultural, handicraft and urban development not only in Central Asia, but also the entire Middle East region - Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and India. Therefore, the scientific community rightfully considers the culture of Sarazmians as the beginning and the foundation of civilization of agriculture, handicrafts and urban development in the basin between the Sirdaryo and Amudaryo rivers. Our distant ancestors, before choosing the site of Sarazm as their permanent residence, may have taken into account the main factor – abundance of water resources and vast soft soils.

   Sarazm was the birthplace of the first architects of the Varorud region, and to date more than 150 houses, 4 fire temples, a granary and a cottage have been discovered under the ground. The discovered objects of this ancient city testify to the high interest in the urban culture of our ancestors, and we see the beginning of the formation of the urban culture of our ancestors on the basis of the architectural and construction art of Sarazm. At the end of the fourth millennium BCE, the city of Sarazm was also known as one of the major centers of metal production. The upper mountains of Zarafshon rich in copper, gold, silver, lead, tin and other minerals facilitated the development of this craft.

  Indeed, today the territory of Panjakent is one of the largest gold and copper mining areas in Tajikistan. Archaeological excavations have uncovered a variety of mining tools, as well as molds for casting tools and weapons, including more than 300 units of copper, bronze, lead, silver and gold tools.

   The Tajik scholars’ studies proved that Sarazm inhabitants have mastered more than 40 types of handicraft. Archaeological finds testify to the cultural and commercial ties of Sarazm with the present-day territories of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and other lands. Development of trade relations during transition period lasting from the 4th to 3rd millennia has evolved Sarazm into one of the centers of cultural integration in the ancient world.

   As early as in 1981-1991Tajik, Russian, American and French scholars and archaeologists estimated 5500-year history of Sarazm.American and French archaeologists have dated foundation of Sarazm to 5899-5765 and 5775-5364 respectively, and Tajik and Russian scholars amounted it to 5600-5500. These dates have been studied and confirmed based on the radiocarbon and chemical analysis in the laboratories of Boston, Paris and St. Petersburg, where the charcoal samples excavated in Sarazm have been scrutinized. And as a result of the scientific studies, the scholars have come to conclusion that beginning of the history of Sarazm traces back to 5500 years.

  Many pages of the history of Sarazm have yet to beunveiled, and we hope that national and foreign scholars will continue exploring vague pages of the history of this center of civilization and make it accessible to the world community.We would like to express our gratitude to all of the national and foreign scholars and researchers, who explore the ancient and glorious history of the Tajik people and publish valuable scientific articles and thesis papers. We wish them success in their uneasy and still valuable work in the future.


Dear friends!

   Over the period of independence, the ancient city of Panjakent has developed significantly along with other cities and districts of the country. Small and large manufacturing enterprises, hundreds of social facilities, including educational and health facilities, shopping and service centers have been built on its territory. Urban development activities have gained unprecedented momentum, especially in the light of celebration of the 5500th anniversary of Sarazm.

  During 29 years of state independence, the Tajik Government has always attached a great importance to the socio-economic development of Panjakent and improvement of its residents’ lives through using all resources and opportunities to achieve the state’s highest goal - to raise the living standards. Accordingly, in the past twenty years alone the public budget allocated more than TJS 1.2billion for this purpose.

  The population of Panjakent in 1991 made 162,235 people, and by 1 January 2020, it exceeded 303,000 meaning it increased by 87% or almost doubled compared to 1991.

  In addition, the Government has implemented 18 public investment projects on construction, repair and equipment of educational institutions, construction and reconstruction of roads, reduction of energy losses, farm support, embankment and disaster prevention worth more than TJS 1.3billion in the city of Panjakent. Currently, nine public investment projects worth TJS 330m are under implementation in Panjakent.

   During the independence period, with the support of the Government of Tajikistan and through mobilization of domestic and foreign capital we established 50 new enterprises and workshops in the city and thereby created jobs for thousands of residents in Panjakent city and rural area in this district. In this period, we constructed  two small hydropower plants with the capacity of 500 kW each, 444 km of 0.4 kV transmission lines, 91 km of high-voltage “Ayni – Panjakent” transmission line and 425 transformer stations and one 35 kV power substation, and renovated 220 kV “Rudaki” power substation totaling to TJS 260m.

   The Government support and funding developed new lands in the city of Panjakent during this period. Thus, the area for rice cultivation was increased to 1800 hectares and potatoes to more than 6600 hectares, which increased rice production to 9000 tons and potatoes to 102 000 tons. Also, during this period 580 hectares of new orchards and vineyards including more than 20 hectares of intensive orchards were created. During this time, farmers of the city have built 39 greenhouses with an area of about 11 000m2 and four cold storages with the capacity of 1130 tons of fruits and vegetables, which have been operative effectively.

   Reconstruction and renovation of 113km Ayni-Panjakent highway at a cost of TJS 770m is one of the most important initiatives implemented by the Government for the benefit of people in Panjakent during the independence period, which eased the life of this area’s residents. In addition, more than 30 km of internal roads have been repaired and renovated in recent years.

   With the support of the Government and involvement of entrepreneurs, new buildings of 43 educational institutions and 51 health centers and clinics were built and put into operation in Panjakent. Also, 40 health centers and clinics have been repaired in the rural areas, and the construction of 12 medical clinics is underway to celebrate the 30th anniversary of State Independence. Overall, 277 of 405 buildings and facilities have been put into operation within the development plan of action on the occasion of the grand national holiday.

   I am confident that the process of development by generous entrepreneurs, businesses and the hardworking people of Panjakent will continue. I would like to recall that in addition to the activities accomplished to present, the Government intends to arrange a number of other events for the 30th anniversary of state independence in order to further develop the city and rural areas.

   Today we commissioned a modern hospital for 200 beds with all necessary conditions and medical equipment in the center of the city. As a part of my business trip, I participated in the opening ceremony of a new school for 1280 seats, several industrial enterprises and administrative facilities, and got acquainted with the effective work of the city's well-known farmers.

   In recent years, significant activities have been accomplished in the field of culture in the city. Thus, a museum was built in the conservation area of Sarazm and a library was opened in the city center. These facilities offer favorable conditions to hold all kinds of cultural and educational events, especially for tourists and visitors to this ancient city. I believe that the honorable and proud people of Panjakent have gained new strength from their glorious and ancient history and today's development changes, and will make greater efforts for the further development of their homeland, preservation of its history and valuable ancestral traditions in a peaceful environment, complete political stability and national unity of our beloved country.

  I would also like to emphasize that the city authorities, together with the relevant agencies, including the Committee for Tourism Development have to take necessary actions on the effective use of Sarazm as a unique historical site and other special sites to attract domestic and foreign tourists, create modern infrastructure, as well as learn from the experience of the developed countries on training of personnel to welcome and serve tourists. I would like to recall that if targeted work in this direction is carried out on the right pathway, the city of Panjakent and its unique sites can be turned into a tourism business card of Tajikistan. 

   In conclusion, I once again congratulate all people of the country, including the residents of ancient Panjakent, on the twenty-ninth anniversary of the independence and freedom of our beloved Tajikistan and the 5500th Anniversary of Sarazm, and wish everyone and each of you good health, prosperity, and success. Let this great historical date remain forever in the memory of our compatriots as an important means of national pride, self-education and self-awareness, and become a new step in the further development of culture and spirituality of our people and the education of future generations of the nation!


I wish you all success, dear compatriots!